Small and medium-sized accounting practices (SMPs): Explaining financial performance based on human capital and organizational resources

This study investigates, based on the resource-based theory, the differences in financial performance of small- and medium-sized accounting practices (SMPs). Survey data of Belgian heads of SMPs was collected, by asking about personal characteristics regarding education and experience (representing human capital resources), firm size, service types provided, cooperation, and communication (representing organisational capital resources). The results demonstrate practitioners how to efficiently allocate their scarce resources to increase their accounting firms’ performance. Additionally, the study’s insights are another reason for including communications, teamwork, and lifelong learning skills in the education of future accountants.

Verplancke, F., De Bruyckere, S., Everaert, P., Coppens, C., and Blondeel, E. (2023). Small and medium-sized accounting practices (SMPs): Explaining financial performance based on human capital and organizational resources. Accounting in Europe,

New publication in Management Accounting Research

This study investigates the mechanisms that link strategic orientation to choices regarding the purposes of cost information use. We do so by examining whether costing system design choices regarding complexity and diversity mediate the relationships between an exploitation or exploration orientation and cost information usage for decision making and control. Using survey data collected from 191 business units of medium- and large-sized Thai manufacturing and service firms, structural equation modelling demonstrates different patterns of results between an exploitation and an exploration context. As predicted, we find that costing system design choices are mediating mechanisms only in the context of exploration. By providing insight into antecedents and consequences of costing system design choices, our study complements prior costing research as well as studies on management control practices across different innovation modes.
Reference: Daowadueng, P., Hoozée, S., Jorissen, A., & Maussen, S. Forthcoming. Do costing system design choices mediate the link between strategic orientation and cost information usage for decision making and control? Management Accounting Research: 100854.

The ChatGPT Artificial Intelligence Chatbot: How Well Does It Answer Accounting Assessment Questions?

ChatGPT is a large language-learning model that utilizes machine learning to generate natural language text and has garnered considerable attention for its ability to respond to users’ questions. This study compares ChatGPT’s performance on accounting assessments to student averages on the same set of questions, analyzing where it performs better and worse. A crowd-sourcing technique for data collection and paper authorship is used. By this, data from 14 countries and 186 institutions is collected. The results of the 28,085 analyzed questions show, as of January 2023, that ChatGPT provides correct answers for 56.5 percent of questions and partially correct answers for an additional 9.4 percent of questions. When considering point values for questions, students significantly outperform ChatGPT with a 76.7 percent average on assessments compared to 47.5 percent for ChatGPT if no partial credit is awarded and 56.5 percent if partial credit is awarded. Still, ChatGPT performs better than the student average for 15.8 percent of assessments when a partial credit is included. The results will help academics, administrators, faculty, instructors, and students better understand the potential impact of large language-learning models like ChatGPT on education, not only in the field of accounting, but also in many fields with similar types of assessments such as finance, information systems, management, and operations.

Blondeel, E., and Everaert, P. in Wood et al. (2023). The ChatGPT Artificial Intelligence Chatbot: How Well Does It Answer Accounting Assessment Questions? Issues in Accounting Education,

Link to the paper :

Does Practice Make Perfect? The Effect of Online Formative Assessments on Students’ Self-Efficacy and Test Anxiety

This study investigates the potential of voluntary online exercises – online formative assessments (OFAs) – to increase self-efficacy and decrease test anxiety. The results make educators aware of an unfavourable change in students’ self-efficacy and test anxiety throughout the semester. However, this study also provides accounting educators with a solution to this problem. More specifically, this research proves that students who use OFAs experience an increase in self-efficacy, and those students also tend to experience lower test anxiety. Students confirm these favourable effects based on their experiences with the OFAs. The results demonstrate how OFAs support accounting students to increase their self-efficacy and decrease their test anxiety.

Blondeel, E., Everaert, P., and Opdecam, E. (2023). Does Practice Make Perfect? The Effect of Online Formative Assessments on Students’ Self-Efficacy and Test Anxiety. The British Accounting Review,

New publication in Accountancy & Bedrijfskunde

On May first 2019, the new Belgian corporate law, “Wetboek van vennootschappen en verenigingen” (WVV) replaced the former “Wetboek van Vennootschappen” (W.Venn.). In this study, we focus in-depth on one specific novelty: the replacement of the former “Private Company with Limited Liability” (BVBA) by the “Private Company” (BV). Earlier, Belgium had voluntarily chosen to apply many of the stringent European regulations to the former BVBA. The BV now ends this phenomenon of “goldplating”. Although existing literature gives a profound justification to include less stringent regulation in corporate law, there is a gap in the literature when it comes to the impact on practice. This research reveals important insights for practitioners by means of a qualitative (interviews) and quantitative (database) study. In doing so, we conclude that the new BV, although much more flexible, does not differ fundamentally from its predecessor.

Read our full article here: Van BVBA naar BV: what’s in a name? . (article written in Dutch)

Reference: Waeye, D., Maussen, S., & Everaert, P. (2022). Van BVBA naar BV: what’s in a name? Accountancy & Bedrijfskunde 2022(2): 20-38.

New publication in the Journal of Accounting and Public Policy

Following up on their previous publication in Radiotherapy and Oncology (Defourny et al., 2019), the authors now report the policy implications of their interdisciplinary costing project, in which they estimated the cost of radiation treatments at the national level.

Defourny, N., Hoozée, S., Daisne, J.-F., Lievens, Y., forthcoming. Developing time-driven activity-based costing at the national level to support Belgian policy recommendations for radiation oncology. Journal of Accounting and Public Policy.

Nieuwe editie handboek Management Accounting

De nieuwe editie van het “paarse boek” is vanaf nu beschikbaar. In deze nieuwe editie hebben de auteurs heel wat extra oefeningen toegevoegd, vooral in dienstenbedrijven en non-profits.

Everaert, P., Hoozée, S., Bruggeman, W., 2022. Handboek management accounting: kostprijsberekening voor managementbeslissingen, 12de editie, Lefebvre Sarrut.

New publication in the Journal of Management Control

This study addresses differences and similarities in a wide variety of management control practices in Anglo-Saxon (Australia, English Canada), Germanic (Austria, non-Walloon Belgium, Germany) and Nordic firms (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden). Unique data was collected through structured interviews from 584 strategic business units (SBUs).

Read the full article here (Open Access):

Malmi, T., Bedford, D.S., Brühl, R., Dergård, J., Hoozée, S., Janschek, O., Willert, J., forthcoming. The use of management controls in different cultural regions: an empirical study of Anglo-Saxon, Germanic and Nordic practices. Journal of Management Control.


User-generated reviews and the financial performance of restaurants

Restaurant-level review data are extracted from TripAdvisor and matched with firm-level data from the financial reports gathere from the Belfirst database of Bureau Van Dijk. The resulting sample contains data on 2,297 Belgian firms over the periode 2007-2018, for which 134,831 reviews are investigated. The author’s regression model of firm-level profitability is estimated against online review characteristics and various financial control variables, including past profitability. This research model and estimation technique address the endogeneity concerns that typically weaken this kind of study.
While comparable studies on hotels document a positive association between review characteristics and profitability, the authors find no relationship between review rating, volume and variability in the profitability of restaurants.

S. Abdullah, P. Van Cauwenberge, H. Vander Bauwhede, P. O’Connor. User-generated reviews and the financial performance of restaurants, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. DOI: 10.1108/IJCHM-10-2021-1236